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The idea of marine insurance has emerged since ancient times before other types of insurance. The first Phoenicians, then the Romans, developed systems by which the voyage could be secured or protected. Lloyds has become one of the most important insurance companies in the world, with its roots in shipping and marine insurance.
Types of marine insurance1- Insurance of goods Any goods loaded on any type of vehicle shall be insured for transportation from one place to another under the goods insurance policy. A variety of insurance policies are available for shipping goods as follows:Travel insurance policy - This policy provides protection for every shipment sent by sea or air from anywhere to another place in the world against various hazards.Open insurance policy - This policy provides continuous automatic protection for all shipments of import and export goods belonging to the insured and sent by any means of transport under agreed terms.Land transport insurance policy - includes goods transported by land from one place to another.Carrier liability insurance policy - Provides protection to freighters / carriers against liability for loss or damage of goods while in their custody or under their responsibility."Cargo" insurance provides insurance coverage for goods against risks during the sea transport process. This insurance can extend to the transfer from warehouses in the country of the cruise to the insureds stores in the country of destination.
1- Maritime insurance contractA contract between two parties under which the insurance company undertakes to compensate the insured for the loss incurred by the insured during the period of insurance in return for insurance premium paid by the insured to the insurance company and the document which indicates this contract and contains the conditions and exceptions and obligations of the parties to the contract called the insurance policy.2- Types of marine insurance documentsThe following are the most common types of documents:A. Voyage Policy documentCovers a single trip from place to place regardless of the time period and is usually applied to a single cargo of goods.Open Cover PolicyIs an insurance contract designed to meet the clients insurance needs for its commercial operations during a future period and automatically regardless of the variation in the type of goods, flights, conditions and prices.An open contract as soon as it is entered into provides the insured with coverage according to the agreed basis for all shipments within the scope of the contract. Details of each shipment shall be announced. The insurance company shall issue a certificate of insurance for each separate shipment. Thus, the open contract provides the insured with the need to negotiate full cover. Per individual shipment.3. Insurance applicationThe insurance application form is the means by which the necessary information about the risk to be insured and the insurance applicant is obtained. It forms the basis of the contract. It must be ascertained that the insurance applicant has completed the application and that he has answered all the questions in it.Marine insurance, like any other type, is subject to a very good faith principle, which requires the insurance applicant to disclose all the essential facts related to the subject of the insurance / voyage of the ship / ship whether or not it is requested.The information provided by the insurance application allows the subscriber to assess the risk in question and is divided into the following groups:Information related to the insured.n L / C if applicable.n Information and tags related to the message.n The basis of valuation of the goods (amount of insurance).n Information related to the trip (by sea, air and land).n Information related to the required coverage.n Other data.4. Conditions of coverageThe insurance documents cover goods transported from the specified location for the beginning of the journey to the end of the journey. There are graduated levels of these documents, divided by the degree of coverage, and are found in three groups, each of which are called Conditions (a), (b) and (c). -شروط Conditions of marine insurance Goods (a)Covers all losses and damages to the insured thing including general loss and liability for collision resulting from a common fault except for the risk of war, unrest, riots and civil unrest with additional premium and conditions that can be covered by an additional premium.However, there are exceptions that are not covered by the marine insurance policy which are the losses, damages or expenses:§ attributed to misconduct intended by the insured.§ which is caused by normal leakage or normal deficiency in weight, size, wear and tear and normal tear of the insured thing.§ which is caused by inadequate or inadequate packaging or preparation of the insured thing.§ Cause of a defect or the nature of the insured thing.§ which is caused directly by the delay, even if the delay occurred as a result of a risk against him.§ arising from the insolvency or financial deficiency of ship owners, managers, tenants or operators;§ arising from the use of any war weapon used fission and / or fusion atomic or nuclear or any other interaction is similar or use a force or radioactive material.§ The consequences of the non-validity of the ship or vessel for the navigation or non-suitability of the ship or vessel or means of transport, container or truck for the proper transport of the insured thing.§ arising from war, civil war, revolution, rebellion, armed insurrection, civil strife resulting from it, or any act of hostility by or against a fighting force;§ arising out of seizure, arrest, arrest, suspension or interdiction (excluding piracy) and the resulting or attempted consequences thereof;§ Causes of mines, torpedoes, bombs, or other obsolete weapons of war.§ caused by strikers, or workers who are denied entry